The resilience of Hong Kong’s residents was tested by many crises, from the early Bubonic Plague (1894), to the 2002-03 SARS epidemic, and the current fight for political rights and struggle to cope with the COVID-19 epidemic. The concept of “resilience” was introduced by Holling, in 1973 to comprehend the capacity of ecosystems dealing with the alternation of stability and perturbation. Later, other scholars developed the concept further by adapting it to varied scales of social and ecological systems. On the basis of their studies, two essential attributes—adaptability and transformability—were identified assessing a system’s capability of being resilient. These two abilities are also crucial for the resilience of communities.
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