The Journal of Public Space 2020-05-25T22:00:09+02:00 Dr Luisa Bravo Open Journal Systems <h2>&nbsp;</h2> <h2><strong>"Public space </strong>in cities is a common good, meant to be open, inclusive and democratic,&nbsp;<strong>a fundamental human right for everybody</strong>."</h2> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Dr Luisa Bravo</a></strong></span><br><em>The Journal of Public Space</em>, Founder and Editor in Chief<br><em>City Space Architecture</em>, Founding Member and President<br>(from the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>statement</strong></span></a> submitted at the <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>26th UN-Habitat Governing Council</strong> </a></span>held in Nairobi, Kenya, 8-12 May 2017 - reat the full statement <strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">here</a></strong>)<br><strong>Stand up for Public Space!&nbsp;</strong> |&nbsp; UN-Habitat Global Urban Lecture by Dr Luisa Bravo (click <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">here</a></strong></span>)&nbsp; |&nbsp; A global campaign launched at the Habitat III conference in Quito, Ecuador, 2016 (click <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">here</a></strong></span>)</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The Journal of Public Space (<strong>ISSN 2206-9658)</strong> is a research project developed by <strong><a title="City Space Architecture" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">City Space Architecture</a></strong>, a non-profit organization based in Italy&nbsp;in partnership with <strong><a title="UN HABITAT" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">UN-Habitat</a></strong>,&nbsp;the United Nations Human Settlements&nbsp;Programme, based in Kenya.<br>The Journal of Public Space is the first, international, interdisciplinary, academic, open access journal entirely dedicated to public space. It speaks different languages and is open to embrace diversity, inconvenient dialogues and untold stories, from multidisciplinary fields and all countries, especially from those that usually do not have voice, overcoming the Western-oriented approach that is leading the current discourse.<br>As a proper public space, The Journal of Public Space is free, accessible and inclusive, providing a platform for emerging and consolidated researchers; it is intended to foster research, showcase best practices and inform discussion about the more and more important issues related to public spaces in our changing and evolving societies.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Read more about the <a title="JPS Editorial Team" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Editorial Team</a>.</p> Vol. 5 n. 2 | 2020 | FULL ISSUE 2020-05-25T19:14:47+02:00 Luisa Bravo <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>DISCLAIMER</strong>: The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this journal do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries, or regarding its economic system or degree of development. The analysis, conclusions and recommendations of this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme. Reference in this journal of any specific commercial products, brand names, processes, or services, or the use of any trade, firm, or corporation name does not constitute endorsement, recommendation, or favouring by UN-Habitat or its officers, nor does such reference constitute an endorsement of UN-Habitat.</p> 2020-04-30T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Public health and well-being in public open spaces through climate responsive urban planning and design 2020-05-25T19:14:47+02:00 Silvia G. Tavares David Sellars Greg Mews Karine Dupré Christhina Cândido Simon Towle <p>The urban fabric enables people to move between climate-controlled environments (such as home and indoors work) and non-controlled ones (such as parks and beaches). The planning and design of urban spaces, on the other hand, largely define the way we live and affect our health as it can, for instance, promote or hinder active lifestyles and social cohesion (Owen, 2009; Speck, 2012). But even when the cities have compact built form and provide key features and infrastructure conducive to healthy lifestyles, local climate can indirectly dictate and restrict the use of public open spaces if the weather is prohibitive (Tavares &amp; Swaffield, 2017). Climate responsive urban planning and design is, therefore, key to secure a healthy urban lifestyle (Barton, Thompson, Burgess, &amp; Grant, 2015; Kent et al., 2017; Mouratidis, 2017) especially in light of frequency and severity of extreme weather events.</p> 2020-05-12T22:51:54+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## What can urban design learn from changing winds? 2020-05-25T19:14:47+02:00 Qiuxia Xu Zhen Xu <p>Climate is one of the prominent and persistent factors affecting the human habitat. During the recent urbanization, human society has left remarkable environment footprints including the macro- and micro- climates related to human settlement. It’s essential for urban planning decision-maker to contextualize people’s wellbeing in the public space and micro-climate changes. The adverse changes of micro-climate are usually related more to local developments than to global changes, with the causality relatively feasible to detect.<br>Characteristic of openness, the open spaces play an important role as outdoor relaxation and wind corridor, which is precious yet vulnerable assets for the citizens’ wellbeing. Agglomerated and unintentional developments inevitably change the wind patterns which potentially affect public life. A longitudinal study of such circumstance will provide knowledge and lessons for sustainable and salutary urban design.<br>Based on CFD simulation, this paper compared the static winter and summer airflows patterns of the Drum Tower area in downtown Nanjing during the period of 1990s-2010s. The results indicated that the wind pattern complexity increased gradually, the outdoor comfortability degraded dramatically in some areas, the environment inequity might be deteriorated too. The researcher suggests putting micro-climate issues firmly on the agenda of public wellbeing policy, involving various stakeholders in the assessment and urban design code with technical and social supports.</p> 2020-04-30T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Morphology and sustainability in the project of public spaces 2020-05-25T19:14:48+02:00 Marco Maretto Barbara Gherri Anthea Chiovitti Greta Pitanti Francesco Scattino Nicolò Boggio <p>The research at the base of the project proposal is based on the idea that a city is, first of all, a body made out of "fabrics": Social, economic, cultural and environmental fabrics that in the physical form of the built environment find their dynamic expression. If the morphological analysis of Viterbo urban fabric has been then the analytical base of the design process, the focus on daily use of urban spaces has been its main analytical goal. But to talk about a shared, efficient, citizen-friendly city, means, at the end of the day, to tell of a sustainable city where Morphology and Sustainability can be part of a unique creative process. That has been our main goal from a methodological point of view. The city is in fact a key resource for the environmental control. The scale of microclimate come into play tighter interactions between design and climate data, improving context environmental conditions, promoting social relations between users and enabling energy-saving-strategies for the creation of a healthy and comfortable urban environment. The joint use of <em>Urban Morphology</em> together with an accurate environmental analysis by GIS<em> Environmental maps</em> and a parametric costs control of design choices for the <em>Economic and Financial sustainability</em> has made possible the design of living spaces, aware and respectful from the <em>identity</em> point of view, efficient from the <em>energetic</em> point of view, but also open and flexible to the <em>changing use conditions</em> of city-life.</p> 2020-04-30T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Roofing and thawing the sub-Arctic city 2020-05-25T19:14:48+02:00 Essi Oikarinen <p>An increasing amount of sub-Arctic population is living in cities and settlements. Despite the urbanisation, seasonality still affects the rhythm of life and willingness to spend time outside of home, which, in turn, affects health and wellbeing of the population. In addition to built artefacts, the materiality of sub-Arctic urban environment consists largely of changing weather conditions and seasonality, including phenomena such as thawing, freezing, snow, ice and slush, which have diverse effects on humans using the urban spaces, yet are not often part of conceptualisations of urban space that are formed in southern climates. In this paper, the relationship between sub-Arctic urban form, climate and users of the urban realm is critically re-evaluated using the concept of surface. Based on a review of the literature, the proposed approach gives agency not only to the weather, but also to different types of people inhabiting the urban space. This paper argues that the proposed approach takes better into account the varied nature of sub-Arctic urban spaces and their affordances as an entity: from privatised, roofed and weather-neutralised shopping centres and arcades to sledding hills, skating rinks and other winter-related spaces. This kind of conceptualisation could be beneficial when developing soft mobility plans for northern regions. Encouraging physical activity has direct effects on the physiological health of the population, but in addition to that, the approach attempts to acknowledge&nbsp;personal control of different user groups as a central aspect of wellbeing, which makes the viewpoint more holistic.</p> 2020-04-30T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Public-private interaction in low-rise, high-density Tokyo 2020-05-25T19:14:48+02:00 Satoshi Sano Ivan Filipović Darko Radović <p>The focus of this paper is liveable, low-rise high-density urban morphologies of residential architecture and urban planning practices in Tokyo. Over the last several decades, historically established qualities in cities worldwide are increasingly sacrificed in favour of globalization–led ‘universal’ typologies. Tokyo is not an exception: it is gradually changing to a high-rise, high-density built city environment.<br>From a morphological point of view, the paper demonstrates bioclimatic and cultural disadvantages of such developmental paradigm shift in Tokyo. Presented case studies elaborate upon the ways in which low-rise high-density environments and subsequent urban forms better facilitate human interaction and, consequently, can aid in reducing social isolation and contribute to mental well-being.<br>Presented case studies, observed over the period of six years depict how residential environments created by row-houses can be seen as a collection of adjoining private spaces. The emphasis is on the interconnected set of phenomena: low-rise high-density morphologies, climate-responsive semi-exterior spaces, facilitating human and public-private interaction.<br>The conducted morphological and functional analysis shows how design requirements of bioclimatic responsive semi-exterior space fully coincide with those of desirable public-private interface and human interaction. However, site-specific constraints critically affect spatial configurations of low-rise high-density developments in contemporary Tokyo, emphasizing the requirement for case-by-case attention in design and management of such places. Only design processes conscious of spatial management aware of the potential embedded in the design process can enhance socio-cultural interplay and bioclimatic performance.</p> 2020-05-19T00:04:36+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Green public spaces in the cities of South and Southeast Asia 2020-05-25T22:00:09+02:00 Marlyne Sahakian Manisha Anantharaman Antonietta Di Giulio Czarina Saloma Dunfu Zhang Rupali Khanna Srikanth Narasimalu Abigail Marie Favis Cherie Audrey Alfiler Sumana Narayanan Xin Gao Chenxin Li <p>The significance of green public spaces is well documented in relation to social inclusiveness, human health, and biodiversity, yet how green public spaces achieve what Gough (2017) has termed ‘sustainable wellbeing’ is less understood. This contribution presents preliminary results from a study of green public spaces in four mega-cities of South and Southeast Asia: Chennai (the Republic of India), Metro Manila (the Republic of the Philippines), Singapore, and Shanghai (the People’s Republic of China), cities that have climates ranging from tropical, to subtropical and temperate. The conceptual framework brings together social practice theories with human development theories, methodological implications for the study of park usage, and Protected Needs. This study sets out to understand how parks satisfy human needs by uncovering practices in relation to activities and material arrangements. Central to the research design and sampling strategy is a desire to understand park-related practices in all of their diversity, and accounting for how different activities are carried out by diverse groups of people. The paper presents exemplary results showing that parks provide a space in which a multitude of needs are satisfied, and that parks cannot be substituted by other settings such as commercialized spaces. The paper will conclude by discussing tensions between types of park usage, and in relation to commercial encroachments on public space.</p> 2020-04-30T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Research on the relationship between human behaviour and climatic characteristics in a public open space 2020-05-25T19:14:49+02:00 Kaoru Matsuo Rui Izumiyama Shihona Arai Akiko Tanimura Yusuke Horie Riki Nomoto <p>In urban area, making the attractive public spaces is effective one way of creating a public life or increasing the value of area. In Japan, there have been many public spaces which are not well used because the flexible utilization of public spaces including road, park and river has been limited due to some regulations. However, in accordance with the revision of “Act on Special Measures concerning Urban Reconstruction” and so on, stakeholders have been able to review the making public spaces which are stimulated flexibility use because the utilization of public spaces have been permitted by private business operators or locally area management association. In case of practical and tactical public space making, it is necessary to gain a public consensus through stakeholders discuss what kind of good effect will be made by the alteration of public spaces by communication. Therefore, it is effective to visualize based on the data verification and accumulate the results for short-term and temporary alteration of public spaces such as social experiment. At the same time, integrating the consideration of thermal environment and wind condition will contribute to make more attractive public spaces. Therefore, this study aims obtaining the basic data necessary for making the attractive public spaces considering thermal environment and wind condition in Saitama New Urban Center Area which is central business zones. Specifically, this study progressed via the following steps: 1) activity investigation; 2) thermal environmental and wind condition survey and numerical simulation results; 3) analyzing the relationship between 1) and 2). In addition, it attempts to make analysis focusing strong wind for high-rise building because the high-rise buildings are lined in many parts of Saitama New Urban Center Area. Also, these results are intended to make use of designing attractive public spaces in Saitama New Urban Center Area.</p> 2020-04-30T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Public open space initiatives for healthier cities in Rwanda 2020-05-25T19:14:49+02:00 Ilija Gubic Oana Baloi <p>With a population of close to 13 million, and an annual growth rate of 2.86 percent, Rwanda plans to position itself as a climate resilient, low carbon, low unemployment, reduced poverty country, with a strong services sector by 2050. Its projected increase in its urbanization rate from a current value of 18.4 percent to 35 percent by 2024 is driven by strong political will, significant investments in infrastructure, service provision, and human capital development. Rwanda’s secondary cities, identified as economic nodes of growth, are currently undergoing revision of their masterplans in consideration of climate change realities and the pressure on infrastructure and services due to rapid urbanization. Currently, cities in Rwanda do not yet have a system of public open spaces. Where available, such spaces are usually hardly accessible and need upgrading. To address this, the Ministry of Infrastructure, Rwanda Housing Authority, City of Kigali and six secondary cities have committed to deliver on public open space related activities and targets under the yearly performance contract ‘Imihigo’. The outcomes of their commitments support the climate-responsive revision of masterplans of the City of Kigali and six secondary cities. This paper presents public open space initiatives in Kigali and the results of the technical assessment of public open spaces and participatory planning and design workshop in Nyagatare, secondary city in Rwanda’s. It also discusses ongoing policy changes and initiatives that aim to promote public open spaces as crucial for urban public health.</p> 2020-04-30T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Falling through Space 2020-05-25T19:14:50+02:00 Jill Chism <p>As an artist, whose involvement with creating art in public spaces now spans 19 years, one of the key issues I have is with how to link public art (mostly incorporated in new public infrastructures) with the natural environments and prior histories that the artwork and infrastructure have displaced. My aim is always to address the importance of the balance between nature and culture. The way in which our relationship to nature and the prior histories of a ‘site’ are translated, depends foremost on the nature of the commission and its location.</p> 2020-04-30T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## LEARNING the City: Beyond the Urban Diary 2020-05-25T19:14:50+02:00 Charles R. Wolfe <p>My viewpoint towards understanding cities is ecumenical and immersive. We all experience urban life, and have associated expectations, however simple or complex. In democracies, informed representatives are said to advance the needs of their constituents. Basic human needs are similar, but how they are expressed and sorted in a chosen location are not, so places will vary based on blends and mixtures of expression. To understand the particulars of a city, we must understand associated and customized needs, as well as opportunities to provide them. &nbsp;<br>Achieving public health, safety and happiness will vary. Solutions may be similar, but not the same, and we need to understand—to see and feel—what these solutions, or ‘context keys’, look like from place to place. When considering customized ‘context keys’ for cities today, we must understand how each city or urban place varies from broad stereotypes. We should avoid one-size-fits-all solutions without community input.</p> 2020-04-30T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##