The Journal of Public Space <h2>&nbsp;</h2> <h2><strong>"Public space </strong>in cities is a common good, meant to be open, inclusive and democratic,&nbsp;<strong>a fundamental human right for everybody</strong>."</h2> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Dr Luisa Bravo</a></strong></span><br><em>The Journal of Public Space</em>, Founder and Editor in Chief<br><em>City Space Architecture</em>, Founding Member and President<br>(from the statement submitted at the <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>26th UN-Habitat Governing Council</strong> </a></span>held in Nairobi, Kenya, 8-12 May 2017)<br><strong>Stand up for Public Space!&nbsp;</strong> |&nbsp; UN-Habitat Global Urban Lecture by Dr Luisa Bravo (click <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">here</a></strong></span>)&nbsp; |&nbsp; A global campaign launched at the Habitat III conference in Quito, Ecuador, 2016 (click <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">here</a></strong></span>)</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The Journal of Public Space (<strong>ISSN 2206-9658)</strong> is a research project developed by <strong><a title="City Space Architecture" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">City Space Architecture</a></strong>, a non-profit organization based in Italy&nbsp;in partnership with <strong><a title="UN HABITAT" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">UN-Habitat</a></strong>,&nbsp;the United Nations Human Settlements&nbsp;Programme, based in Kenya.<br>The Journal of Public Space is the first, international, interdisciplinary, academic, open access journal entirely dedicated to public space. It speaks different languages and is open to embrace diversity, inconvenient dialogues and untold stories, from multidisciplinary fields and all countries, especially from those that usually do not have voice, overcoming the Western-oriented approach that is leading the current discourse.<br>As a proper public space, The Journal of Public Space is free, accessible and inclusive, providing a platform for emerging and consolidated researchers; it is intended to foster research, showcase best practices and inform discussion about the more and more important issues related to public spaces in our changing and evolving societies.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Read more about the <a title="JPS Editorial Team" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Editorial Team</a>.</p> en-US <p>The Authors retain copyright for articles published in The Journal of Public Space, with first publication rights granted to the journal.&nbsp;Authors who publish withThe Journal of Public Space agree to the following terms:<br>a. authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the 'Work' simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Licence that allows others to share the Work with an acknowledgement of the Work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.<br>b. authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the 'Work' (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.<br>c. authors are permitted and encouraged to post their 'Work' online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published Work (see The Effect of Open Access - <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>).Articles in this journal are published under the Creative Commons Attribution Licence (CC-BY-NC) -&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>. This is to get more legal certainty about what readers can do with published articles, and thus a wider dissemination and archiving, which in turn makes publishing with this journal more valuable for you, the authors.<br><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Creative Commons Attribution Licence (CC-BY-NC)</span> – what does that mean?<br>You are free to:<br>• <strong>Share</strong> - copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format<br>• <strong>Adapt</strong> - remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially.<br>The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.<br>Under the following terms:<br>• <strong>Attribution</strong> - You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.<br><strong>• NonCommercial</strong> — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.</p> (Dr Luisa Bravo) (City Space Architecture) Fri, 31 May 2019 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 60 Vol. 4 n. 1 | 2019 | FULL ISSUE <p class="p1">&nbsp;</p> <p class="p1">&nbsp;</p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1">DISCLAIMER<br></span><span class="s1">The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this journal do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries, or regarding its economic system or degree of development. The analysis, conclusions and recommendations of this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme.<br></span><span class="s1">Reference in this journal of any specific commercial products, brand names, processes, or services, or the use of any trade, firm, or corporation name does not constitute endorsement, recommendation, or favouring by UN-Habitat or its officers, nor does such reference constitute an endorsement of UN-Habitat.</span></p> Luisa Bravo ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 31 May 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Strengthening our civil servants' mission for the common good <p>This issue of The Journal of Public Space marks our Editorial Team’s fourth year of activities, that I’m proudly leading as Editor in Chief. Over the past three years we have published eight issues, 121 papers from more than 140 authors from 30 countries, engaging more than 60 academic reviewers at the global level. More than 50% of those papers were double blind peer reviewed, following academic standards; other published papers included reports from United Nations events (like the Habitat III conference and the 9<sup>th</sup> World Urban Forum) or reports concerning art-based or placemaking-led projects, professionals’ viewpoints, artists’ portfolios, editorials from influential scholars, leading experts affiliated to global NGOs and practitioners serving as guest editors.</p> <p>In this issue we are publishing two viewpoints related to the Placemaking movement, one from Ethan Kent, Co-director of the newly established PlacemakingX and Senior Fellow at Project for Public Spaces in New York, and another from Jeroen Laven, Anna Bradley and Levente Polyak from Placemaking Europe, the European chapter of the global Placemaking movement, founded by STIPO in Rotterdam. Each viewpoint opens a new section of the journal, aimed at incorporating placemaking as a relevant field of action: we are interested in publishing articles related to design projects and community-led interventions, collecting successful and also unsuccessful stories, from research into action, from theory to implementation, providing case studies, best practices on capacity building, education and empowerment, tackling the complexity of the process, at the community and governmental level, from top-down to bottom-up, with a particular focus on youth.&nbsp;</p> <p>With this issue we&nbsp;welcome two new academic partners, who will be cooperating with us during the coming years: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Centre for the Future of Places, based in Stockholm (Sweden) and RMIT University, based in Melbourne (Australia).</p> Luisa Bravo ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 13 Jun 2019 21:49:43 +0200 Dressed bodies and built environments: the interactive composition of public space <p>The human body has been pivotal in much architectural research. Researchers of public space often underscore its interactive and transformative qualities as linking to a broader understanding of the different individual social practices taking place in such spaces. What seems to be lacking however is an analysis of the relationship between the dressed body and the built environment which together constitute a public space. The aim of this paper is to explore and elaborate on the interaction between dressed bodies and architectural structures and outline an alternative approach to understanding the different aesthetic forces at play in the constitution of public space. Using a photographic series of piloted experimental sites, this paper points out how the aesthetics of fashion enrich, contribute to, and change the aesthetics of urban architectural environments. The result prompts a clearer understanding of the interaction between dressed bodies and architecture and offers guidance for future research designed to bridge the gap between the aesthetics of the scale of the body and the scale of building and infrastructure in the constitution of public space.</p> Clemens Thornquist ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 31 May 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Street vending management in Bangkok: the need to adapt to a changing environment <p>This research paper proposes that the administration of street vending in Bangkok is consistent but not compatible with changes in the economic and social situation in Thailand as well as the growth of street vending around the world as well as increasing appreciation of its important role. To support this argument, the paper presents the policy measures on street vending since the founding of Bangkok in 1973, the paradigm shift in employment since the Asian Economic Crisis in 1997, and empirical data from a study of street vending in four districts in Bangkok in 2016. The study collected data from street vendors and buyers in Bangrak, Pathumwan, Phranakhon and Samphanthawong. The sample size of the vendors in each district was 100 and participants were selected through random sampling. A sample of 50 buyers in each district was selected through convenience sampling. From the documentary study and the field data, the paper recommends that the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration should realign the administration of street vending in accordance with dynamics of the economic and social situation and international trends.</p> Narumol Nirathron, Gisèle Yasmeen ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 31 May 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Not in my face please. Stress caused by the presence of smokers in places with restorative qualities <p>Non-smokers’ spatial transactions with smokers in semi-outdoor areas with restorative qualities have been investigated. In the process, the impact of smoking in <em>break spaces</em> on non-smokers’ behavior in negotiating mutual spatial boundaries was studied. The areas with restorative qualities were defined as places where regular visitors spend their break time to relieve work-related stress or seek temporary relaxation. Regularly used as break areas, three covered-overhead walkways located in different building precincts in the same academic setting were sampled in order to elicit narratives relating to perceived environmental deprivation among regular visitors. In-depth, semi-structured interviews had the aim of eliciting and unfolding these narratives where they emerged as a result of different modes of environmental deprivation. Discourse analysis of the transcribed interviews led to a systematic distillation of five themes associated with the presence of smokers in the studied restorative settings. The study revealed that participating non-smokers had devised both control and coping mechanisms to deal with the smokers’ behaviors, such as sending subtle non-verbal cues and repositioning their gaze. Moderated by furniture and landscape configuration, spaciousness, and visual and physical distance, smokers and non-smokers passively negotiated these spatial transactions in each of the respective walkways.</p> Chamila Subasinghe ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 31 May 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Assessment of user happiness in campus open spaces <p>There is a considerable amount of interest among scholars and urban designers in assessing and fulfilling a shared desire for happiness that is expressed by users of open spaces. The scope of this paper is limited to user experience in a university campus, and considerations around the impact of the setting and design of existing open spaces on stimulating positive feelings and happiness in students, and enhancing the all-round educational experience. The study is limited to young female students at the Effat University campus, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Jeddah City. This paper aims to assess the students’ level of happiness on a university campus by examining the impact of the open spaces design and setting on the students. A cognitive map analysis is used to investigate the students’ emotional experience of the open spaces on campus. Also, a questionnaire is used to investigate the students’ preferable open spaces and the reasons for their preferences, which validate the results. The results showed that due to social and environmental conditions some decisions need to be made in response to outdoor temperatures and the spaces’ settings in order to improve their design and make a significant positive impact on students’ happiness. In addition, this could potentially result in a happier, healthier, and more efficient educational environment overall.</p> Alshimaa A. Farag, Samaa R. Badawi, Rahma M. Doheim ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 31 May 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Understanding people’s needs for a vivid public realm as a key towards enhancing modern neighbourhoods’ liveability <p>Traditional cities emerged and grew according to the residents’ needs; thus they were a reflection of the community’s culture and traditions. But lately cities have witnessed numerous changes and challenges. Nasr City in Cairo was planned as a suburb in the late sixties to tackle the housing shortage in Cairo. Nasr city’s master plan aimed at accommodating modern planning concepts where it featured an abundance of open public spaces when compared to other districts of Cairo. However, these spaces are empty of people most of the time, which detracts from the character and the experiential qualities of the area. This paper aims to explore the way in which the residents of Nasr city envision ‘their’ public spaces, comprehending the reasons why their usage of such spaces is currently hindered and discovering their recommendations for enhancing public spaces in their neighbourhoods in a way that would encourage them to visit them regularly. In addition, this paper assesses Nasr city’s public spaces, in an attempt to bridge the gap between the offered built environment and people’s needs. This assessment shall be achieved through the use of questionnaires, observations of people’s reactions towards offered public spaces, urban surveys of the provided public spaces and interviews with officials. Based on these studies the paper proposes recommendations incorporating people’s needs for a vivid public realm, in order to help planners and officials to understand the malfunctions inherent in modern city planning and management models that have hindered planned public spaces from conveying and fulfilling their role as centres of social interaction.</p> Merham M. Keleg, Marwa Abdellatif ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 31 May 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Public space quality evaluation: prerequisite for public space management <p>Public spaces are an important part of cities as they contribute to improvements in liveability, environmental quality and sustainability. Despite these conditions of public spaces in cities in developing countries like India, are far from desirable in terms of quantity as well as quality.&nbsp; Though considerable research has been done on successful public open spaces to identify quality attributes/criteria and their evaluation in the context of developed countries, much of this has been primarily aimed at providing design guidelines/solutions. Besides, the&nbsp; role of proper management in ensuring quality and overall success of public spaces has also been assessed. However, not much research has been done in this regard in Indian context, where there is a considerable difference between the norms and provision of public spaces; the usage of public spaces and their quality from those in developed/rich countries This demands an in-depth understanding of the problems and issues surrounding public spaces, the criteria for quality in public spaces, and development of an evaluation framework, so that appropriate management strategies can be framed for their improvement.</p> <p>In view of the above, the study investigates public spaces in the context of three Indian cities and identifies the quality attributes/criteria based on a survey of users’ opinion and observational studies of selected public spaces. Further, a framework for the evaluation of the quality of public spaces employing the Public Space Quality Index (PSQI), has been developed and applied in selected public spaces. Using the above methodology, public spaces in a city with different performance levels, and factors responsible for the same can be identified, which can then become the basis for formulating appropriate management strategies for their improvement and comparing performances of public spaces in specific areas of a city/different cities to encourage competitiveness among cities to improve the quality of their public realm.</p> Seema Praliya, Pushplata Garg ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 31 May 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Leading urban change with people powered public spaces. The history, and new directions, of the Placemaking movement <p>Successful urban development is usually anchored by vital public spaces where people naturally want to gather: a crossroads or a main street, third place business, public market, waterfront wharf, library, railway station, campus, agora, piazza, or civic square. These spaces become truly magnetic places when they provide purpose and meaning for the broad groups of people they serve. Public places are most dynamic—and most enduring—when they showcase and boost a community’s unique public life, economy, and culture. This is especially true when the people using them are involved in their creation, continual re-creation, management, and governance. This is the essence of placemaking. Great public spaces happen through community-driven placemaking and place-led governance. These great places are the foundation of great communities, which in turn are the building blocks of a prosperous, equitable, and resilient society.</p> Ethan Kent ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 31 May 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Placemaking in the European context. The movement is here to stay <p>The importance of public space as a foundation for good cities is recognised across Europe at a policy level&nbsp; and also amongst practitioners. Placemaking Europe, previously known as the European Placemaking Network, is a fresh network connecting a growing number of practitioners, academics, community leaders, market parties and policy makers working on public spaces in ways that give due consideration to placemaking and the City at Eye Level. Through this approach, Placemaking Europe shares knowledge, exchanges ideas, and actively shapes collaborative projects.</p> Jeroen Laven, Anna Louise Bradley, Levente Polyak ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 31 May 2019 00:00:00 +0200