The Journal of Public Space <h2>&nbsp;</h2> <h2><strong>"Public space </strong>in cities is a common good, meant to be open, inclusive and democratic,&nbsp;<strong>a fundamental human right for everybody</strong>."</h2> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Dr Luisa Bravo</a></strong></span><br><em>The Journal of Public Space</em>, Founder and Editor in Chief<br><em>City Space Architecture</em>, Founding Member and President<br>(from the statement submitted at the <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>26th UN-Habitat Governing Council</strong> </a></span>held in Nairobi, Kenya, 8-12 May 2017)<br><strong>Stand up for Public Space!&nbsp;</strong> |&nbsp; UN-Habitat Global Urban Lecture by Dr Luisa Bravo (click <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">here</a></strong></span>)&nbsp; |&nbsp; A global campaign launched at the Habitat III conference in Quito, Ecuador, 2016 (click <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">here</a></strong></span>)</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The Journal of Public Space (<strong>ISSN 2206-9658)</strong> is a research project developed by <strong><a title="City Space Architecture" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">City Space Architecture</a></strong>, a non-profit organization based in Italy&nbsp;in partnership with <strong><a title="UN HABITAT" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">UN-Habitat</a></strong>,&nbsp;the United Nations Human Settlements&nbsp;Programme, based in Kenya.<br>The Journal of Public Space is the first, international, interdisciplinary, academic, open access journal entirely dedicated to public space. It speaks different languages and is open to embrace diversity, inconvenient dialogues and untold stories, from multidisciplinary fields and all countries, especially from those that usually do not have voice, overcoming the Western-oriented approach that is leading the current discourse.<br>As a proper public space, The Journal of Public Space is free, accessible and inclusive, providing a platform for emerging and consolidated researchers; it is intended to foster research, showcase best practices and inform discussion about the more and more important issues related to public spaces in our changing and evolving societies.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Read more about the <a title="JPS Editorial Team" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Editorial Team</a>.</p> en-US <p>The Authors retain copyright for articles published in The Journal of Public Space, with first publication rights granted to the journal.&nbsp;Authors who publish withThe Journal of Public Space agree to the following terms:<br>a. authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the 'Work' simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Licence that allows others to share the Work with an acknowledgement of the Work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.<br>b. authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the 'Work' (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.<br>c. authors are permitted and encouraged to post their 'Work' online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published Work (see The Effect of Open Access - <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>).Articles in this journal are published under the Creative Commons Attribution Licence (CC-BY) - <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>. This is to get more legal certainty about what readers can do with published articles, and thus a wider dissemination and archiving, which in turn makes publishing with this journal more valuable for you, the authors.<br><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Creative Commons Attribution Licence (CC-BY)</span> – what does that mean?<br>You are free to:<br>• <strong>Share</strong> - copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format<br>• <strong>Adapt</strong> - remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially.<br>The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.<br>Under the following terms:<br>• <strong>Attribution</strong> - You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.</p> (Dr Luisa Bravo) (City Space Architecture) Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100 OJS 60 Vol. 3 n. 3 | 2018 | FULL ISSUE Luisa Bravo ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100 The resurgence of public space: from the Charter of Athens to the New Urban Agenda <p>This paper serves as an introduction to the December 2018 edition of <em>The Journal of Public Space, </em>and a reflection on the new importance of public space in international research, policy and practice.&nbsp; Nowhere is that more evident than in the New Urban Agenda, the ambitious new international agreement for the normative goals of urban development in the next two decades and beyond.&nbsp; In that document, public space is treated in no fewer than nine paragraphs – and that new emphasis constitutes a historic reversal of highly influential normative models of prior urban practice.&nbsp; Herein we examine the seminal 1933 Charter of Athens, and we draw out major differences between the two documents, with particular attention to urban form and public space. We conclude with an assessment of the challenges ahead for implementation, particularly as we face significant “lock in” of the older model.</p> Michael W. Mehaffy, Setha M. Low ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100 Using the street in Mexico City Centre: temporary appropriation of public space vs legislation governing street use <p>Historically there has been a rich discussion concerning the function of streets in cities, and their role in urban life. This paper outlines the relevance of temporary appropriation for understanding social dynamics within a given urban environment, looking in particular at activities occurring in the street. It takes as a case study Mexico City Centre and examines the laws and regulations set out by the government of Mexico City which regulate the use of the street. It contrasts this with the ways in which the inhabitants of the city appropriate public space on a daily basis. There is a contrast between the lack of clarity in the legislation surrounding potential activities occurring on the street, and a seemingly tacit consensus between citizens regarding how they appropriate such public spaces. We explore this contrast and outline ways in which public space is used in traditional and unexpected ways, how creative ways are found to use the street area within the spirit of the law, and where further research on this topic this could lead in future.</p> J. Antonio Lara-Hernandez, Alessandro Melis, Claire M. Coulter ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100 Relationship between the demographic characteristics of park users and intensity of park use: the case of Stanley Park and Queen Elizabeth Park <p>Parks are among the few urban infrastructure that functionally combines all the three pillars of sustainable development namely: ecological, social and economic functions. For example, Stanley Park currently serves as one of the largest tourist destinations in Canada. This helps to promote economic growth through the money spent by tourists in the City of Vancouver. The park also provides ecological services through its green infrastructure whilst at the same time serving as a place for social activities such as cycling, jogging and playing tennis. Despite the enormous benefits derived from urban parks, there is a paucity of research investigating the individual demographic characteristics that tend to associate with increased utilization of public parks within an urban setting. There is therefore the need for park researchers and administrators to understand the relationship between the demographic characteristics of park visitors and intensity of park use. The data used for this research was collected through a survey conducted at Stanley Park and Queen Elizabeth Park, both located in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Chi-square tests were used to assess the association between individual demographic characteristics and increased utilization of public parks. For Stanley Park, place of origin and age were the most important predictors for high park patronage; while employment status and sex were found to be the significant factors that associated with high intensity use of Queen Elizabeth Park. The study shows that different demographic variables influence the intensity in the utilization of Stanley Park and Queen Elizabeth Park. Park administrators and policy makers must therefore undertake park specific needs assessment when providing park facilities, programs and services. This will help promote effective and efficient park service delivery.</p> Stephen Appiah Takyi, Andrew D. Siedel, Jones Kwaku Adjei ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100 Effects of outdoor seating spaces on sociability in public retail environments <p>Seating is an important contributor to the social effectiveness of public spaces, due to its ability to support stay activities. This paper focuses on the contributions seating makes to sociability in Queen Street Mall in Brisbane, a public space where limited qualitative assessment has been conducted on seating use and social behaviour. Assessments were made on the sociability of Queen Street Mall through initial observations, online surveys and secondary observations. Common findings across all research methods suggest that the design of Queen Street Mall prioritises pedestrian movement pathways in the interest of adjacent retail centres, creating an environment that struggles to encourage social behaviour. To improve the social use of this space, seating environments should be redesigned to prioritise prolonged outdoor stay activity and increased provisions for shading and sheltering should be provided. Given the impending growth of the Brisbane population, it is important that public spaces in Queen Street Mall are designed to best serve an increasing number of local visitors.</p> Thomas Oram, Ahmad Jehan Baguley, Jack Swain ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100 Creating people-friendly cities in a data rich world: towards smarter and more liveable places <p>There is a growing movement to make cities “smarter.” Typically the goal is to enhance a city’s efficiency and sustainability and thus lower carbon footprints. While these efforts are well-intended and of great importance, we must also make sure that our future cities are places that people also desire to <em>live in</em> across their lifespan. Against this backdrop, a European Union-funded COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) Action was undertaken from 2013-2017 entitled <em>People-Friendly Cities in a Data Rich World. </em>The Action culminated in a two-day Participatory Urbanism 2017 conference that brought together researchers, scientists, city planners, architects, public officials, urban activists, businesses, and NGOs from 30 countries. A crucial goal of this conference was to solicit both guiding principles and research questions that should be pursued in the quest to make cities more liveable for people and smarter for the planet. Here we present the main findings. Ultimately, it is hoped that these findings will help guide the creation of people-friendly cities in a data-rich world.</p> Kevin M. Leyden, Benita Lipps, Namita Kambli ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100 Visitors in immersive museum spaces and Instagram: self, place-making, and play <p>Visitors to museums are increasingly drawn to posting images online that document and reflect their experience. Instagram, as a social media platform, has a proliferating presence in this context. Do different kinds of public spaces within the museum motivate people to share particular types of posts? What kind of posts do visitors generate from digitally immersive spaces with an interactive focus? These questions were unpacked through an exploration of data generated from a digitally immersive, interactive public space – the Immersion Room at the Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum in New York. Findings indicate that constructs of self, place-making, and play constitute critical components of what occurs, and these aspects are amplified in immersive spaces leaving digital traces within social media. I argue that the intersection of immersive digital environments and visual social media platforms such as Instagram offer a moment to play with and subtlety reconstruct the self with place being a significant contextual frame for this activity. Implications extend and challenge perceptions and the role of both museums as public spaces and the ways in which visual forms of social media intersect with spaces and the people who use them.</p> Kylie Budge ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100 Art as a catalyst to activate public space: the experience of ‘Triumphs and Laments’ in Rome <p>Many cities have rediscovered and reinvented their river fronts as public spaces in recent years. From New York to Seoul, urban waterways which were forgotten, marginalized, or outright abandoned are now filled with life. In each case the transformation was spurred by a combination of grass roots, bottom-up initiative and savvy government recognition of the projects’ potentials. Once the city leaders embraced the projects - and not a moment sooner - public and private funding materialized and bureaucratic barriers disappeared.<br>In Rome, whether due to the complexity of the chain of responsibility for the river front, or simply an ingrained aversion to progressive planning - saying no or saying nothing is much easier than taking responsibility for positive change - initiatives to renew the urban riverfront have been small and disconnected. Diverse interests ranging from green space to water transit, from river front commerce to ecological restoration, have all vied for a role in the river’s regeneration.<br>But one particular discipline, that of art, has succeeded more than others in attracting international attention and changing the way people in Rome and throughout the (art) world see the Tiber. Artist William Kentridge, with his project ‘Triumphs and Laments’, using the simple technique of selective cleaning of the Tiber embankment walls, revealed to the world a procession of figures which populate the riverfront with a life that it hasn’t seen in centuries.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Thomas G. Rankin ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100 Long Live Southbank: skateboarding, citizenship and the city <p>‘The Undercroft’ underneath Queen Elizabeth’s Hall on London’s Southbank is one of London’s best known skate spots and plans, released in 2013, to fill the space with retail outlets and relocate the skateboarders to an alternative site were met with fierce opposition by the skateboarding community. In response, the group ‘Long Live Southbank’ was founded to campaign for the site’s preservation. This essay will focus on the Long Live Southbank’s 17 month campaign, asking why the local community were so opposed to the relocation of ‘the Undercroft’ to a purpose built site. By analysing a range of different media produced by Long Live Southbank this essay will look at the phenomenology of skateboarding and how the act of skateboarding affects the individual’s lived experience, arguing that the skateboarders’ resistance to relocation was tied in with their desire to be included in the ongoing production of public space, and therefore deeply embedded within their own individual and collective senses of citizenship.</p> Robbie Warin ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100 The spatial impact of migration <p>Migration across national borders has an increasing impact on cities. Traditionally, cities have been the locus of cultural, religious, social, and economic exchange, which is a fundamental characteristic of a thriving network. However, the urban division of inside (local) and outside (global) is still problematic even though we are moving toward true heterogeneous metropolis. This division results in “inequity” within society, urbanism, architecture and their related fields.&nbsp; A key to improving this societal issue is to understand, rethink, and challenge the division between “inside” and “outside”. To do so, we (XCOOP Rotterdam and the Centros Urbanos Javeriana, Bogotà) have proposed a “hypothetical sustainable multi-cultural city” that aims at integration of immigrants through the creation of an “in-between” space that encourages integration among immigrants and receiving communities. The success of this space will depend on the degree of inclusiveness: local and global residents will need to lead the transformation and any new intervention ought to satisfy communal interests. We have been studying this design-based proposal for a while and since May 2017, we have been working with students and communities (interactive workshops), experts in the field (international conferences), and universities (on-site performances and exhibition) in the following four cities: Bogotà, a city that is economically unbalanced and lacks accessibility to essential goods; Tucson, a city that faces issues of homelessness and segregation; Baltimore, an urban setting that confronts geographical segregation and inequity; Rotterdam, a metropolis focusing on the growth and development of global companies rather than its local residents.<br>The results of these efforts include the following conclusions:<br>- the “in-between” spaces foster opportunities for positive encounters among different groups in public spaces;<br>- the “in-between” spaces rely on equal accesses to public services and goods;<br>- successful implementation of “in-between” spaces requires new typologies and improved methods of participatory design.</p> Cristina Cassandra Murphy ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100