Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Relationship between the demographic characteristics of park users and intensity of park use: the case of Stanley Park and Queen Elizabeth Park

Abstract

Parks are among the few urban infrastructure that functionally combines all the three pillars of sustainable development namely: ecological, social and economic functions. For example, Stanley Park currently serves as one of the largest tourist destinations in Canada. This helps to promote economic growth through the money spent by tourists in the City of Vancouver. The park also provides ecological services through its green infrastructure whilst at the same time serving as a place for social activities such as cycling, jogging and playing tennis. Despite the enormous benefits derived from urban parks, there is a paucity of research investigating the individual demographic characteristics that tend to associate with increased utilization of public parks within an urban setting. There is therefore the need for park researchers and administrators to understand the relationship between the demographic characteristics of park visitors and intensity of park use. The data used for this research was collected through a survey conducted at Stanley Park and Queen Elizabeth Park, both located in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Chi-square tests were used to assess the association between individual demographic characteristics and increased utilization of public parks. For Stanley Park, place of origin and age were the most important predictors for high park patronage; while employment status and sex were found to be the significant factors that associated with high intensity use of Queen Elizabeth Park. The study shows that different demographic variables influence the intensity in the utilization of Stanley Park and Queen Elizabeth Park. Park administrators and policy makers must therefore undertake park specific needs assessment when providing park facilities, programs and services. This will help promote effective and efficient park service delivery.

Published:
Pages:49 to 74
Section: Space
How to Cite
Takyi, S., Siedel, A. and Adjei, J. (2018) “Relationship between the demographic characteristics of park users and intensity of park use: the case of Stanley Park and Queen Elizabeth Park”, The Journal of Public Space, 3(3), pp. 49-74. doi: https://doi.org/10.32891/jps.v3i3.1136.

Author Biographies

Dr. Stephen Appiah Takyi completed his Doctoral education at the School of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Northern British Columbia. Dr. Takyi holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Planning specializing in Development Policy from the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. He also holds a Master’s degree in Urban and Regional Planning from Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario.

University of Northern British Columbia
Canada Canada

Dr. Seidel is Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Architectural and Planning Research. He has served on the faculties, most recent first, of the University of Northern British Columbia, Texas A&M University, the University of Texas and the University at Buffalo.

Red Deer College
Canada Canada

Sociology instructor.

References

Arnold, M.L. & Shinew, K. L. (1998). The role of gender, race and income on park use constraints, Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 16(4), 39-56.

Ballard, R. (2002). Race, ethnicity and culture, in Martin Holborn (ed.), New direction in Sociology, Ormskirk: Causeway.

Burdge, R.J. (1969). Levels of occupational prestige and leisure activity, Journal of Leisure Research, 1, pp. 262-274.

Byrne, J. & Sipe, N. (2010). Green and open space planning for urban consolidation: A review of the literature and best practice, Urban Research Program, Issues Paper 11, Brisbane, Griffith University.

Calkins, M. (2005). Strategy use and challenges of ecological design in landscape architecture, Landscape and Urban Planning, 73(1), 29-48.

Cohen, D.A., McKenzie, T.L., Sehgal, A., Williamson, S., Golineli D. & Lurie N. (2007). Contribution of public parks to physical activity, American Journal of Public Health, 97(3), 509-514.

Field, D.R. (2000). Social groups and parks: Leisure behavior in time and space, Journal of Leisure Research, 32(1), 27-31.

Gobster, P.H. (2002). Managing urban parks for a racially and ethnically diverse clientele, Leisure Sciences: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 24(2), 143-159.

Henderson, K.A, Bialeschki, M.D. Shaw, S. & Freysinger, V. (1996). Both gains and gaps: feminist perspective on women’s leisure, State College, PA: Venture Publishing.

Home R., Bauer N. & Hunziker M. (2007). Constructing urban green spaces: An application of Kelly’s repertory grid, Tourism Review, 62(4), 47-52.

Horak, M. & Young, R. (Eds.) Sites of governance, multilevel government and policy making in Canada’s big cities, McGill-Queen’s University Press, 263-293.

Kaczynski, A. & Henderson, K. (2007). Environment correlates of physical activity: A review of evidence about parks and recreation, Leisure Sciences, 29, 315-354.

Kaczynski, A.T, Stanis, S.A.W., Hastmann, T.J. & Besnyi, G.M. (2011): Variations in observed park physical activity intensity level by gender, race and age: individual and joint effects, Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 8(2), 151-160.

Kelly, J.R. (1987). Recreation towards the Year 2000, Champaign, IL: Management Learning Laboratories.

Kemperman, D.A.M. & Timmermans, H. J.P. (2006). Heterogeneity in urban park use of aging visitors: A latent class analysis, leisure sciences, An Interdisciplinary Journal, 28(1), 57- 71.

McCormark, G.R, Rock, M., Toohey, A.M. & Hignell, D. (2010). Characteristics of urban parks associated with park use and physical activity: A Review of Qualitative Research, Health & Place, 16, 712-726.

Mowen, A.J, Trauntvein, N.E., Graefe A.R. & Son J.S. (2012). The influence of visitor characteristics on state park physical activity levels, Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 30(2), 19-40.

Payne L.L., Mowen, A.J. & Orsega-Smith, E. (2002). An examination of park preferences and behaviours among urban residents: The role of location, race and age, Leisure Sciences, An Interdisciplinary Journal, 24(2), 181-198.

Sadeghian, M. M., & Vardanyan, Z. (2015). A brief review on urban park history, classification and function, International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 4(8), 120-124.

Scott, D. (1997). Exploring time patterns in people’s use of A Metropolitan Park District, Leisure Sciences, 19(3), 159-177.

Statistics Canada (2008). Canadian Social Trends (Code 11-008-XWE). Released November 21, 2008. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11-008-x/2007004/10313-eng (accessed November 8, 2013).

Statistics Canada. (2012). Vancouver, British Columbia (Code 5915022) and Greater Vancouver, British Columbia (Code 5915) (table). Census Profile. 2011 Census. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-316-XWE. Ottawa. Released October 24, 2012. http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2011/dp-pd/prof/index.cfm?Lang=E (accessed September 10, 2013).

Sudman, S. (1976). Applied sampling (Quantitative Studies in Social Relations), New York: Academic Press.

Takyi, S. A. (2016). Evolution of park planning in the City of Vancouver. Focus, 12(1), 11.

Takyi, S. A., & Seidel, A. D. (2017). Adaptive management in sustainable park planning and management: case study of the city of Vancouver Parks, Journal of Urban Ecology, 3(1).

Veitch, J, Salmon, J., Carver, A., Timperio, A., Crawford, D., Fletcher E. & Giles-Corti B. (2014). A natural experiment to examine the impact of park renewal on park-use and park-based physical activity in a disadvantaged neighborhood: The REVAMP Study Methods, BMC Public Health, 14(600). DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-600.

Yin, R. K. (2008). Case study research design and methods, (4th Ed.), Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Open Access Journal
ISSN 2206-9658