Mahbub Rashid
Bushra Obeidat


This study explores the relationships of campus quad design and layout with students’ static activities focusing on gender differences. Students’ static activities were observed at 8914 locations during 390 rounds of observation in six campus quads of a Middle Eastern university. The design and layout data of the quads were collected in the field, and using various techniques of “space syntax”. The relationships of static activities’ with the design and layout features of the quads were investigated using descriptive and correlational statistics. The results of the study indicate that different design and layout features had different relationships with different static activities; that students’ static activities had stronger relationships with natural design features than manmade design features; and that male students’ and female students’ static activities were affected differently by different design and layout features. The significance of these findings and the future directions of research are discussed.


How to Cite
Rashid, M. and Obeidat, B. (2020) “Students’ Static Activities in relation to Campus Quad Design and Layout: Exploring Gender-based Differences”, The Journal of Public Space, 5(1), pp. 75–94. doi: 10.32891/jps.v5i1.1252.
Author Biographies

Mahbub Rashid, University of Kansas

Mahbub Rashid is a tenured full professor in the School of Architecture and Design at the University of Kanas. He serves as the Interim Dean of the School. With a Masters from MIT and a PhD from Georgia Tech, Dr. Rashid is an expert in theories and methods of architectural research with a focus on the structures of built form and space. He uses innovative spatial and social network, fractal, and statistical analysis along with more traditional research techniques to study the effects of built form and space on behavior, psychology, society and culture in office, healthcare, and urban environments. Dr. Rashid has worked on several collaborative research projects with colleagues from many research universities and healthcare institutions in and outside the USA. As a registered architect, he also works as a consultant for reputable architectural design firms. Dr. Rashid has over 90 major and minor publications. His major publications include over 70 peer-reviewed articles (50 of them as the sole and/or main author). He has also made over 70 presentations in national and international peer-reviewed conferences, and another 30 invited presentations.

Bushra Obeidat, Jordan University of Science and Technology

Bushra Obeidat is an assistant professor at Jordan University of Science and Technology. Dr. Obeidat holds a PhD. and MA from the University of Kansas, and two other MSc degrees from Jordan University of Science and Technology and Georgia Institute of Technology. Her research focuses on the links between the built environment and its impacts on human behavior, applying evidence-based design approach for designing and assessing healthcare environments, and the use of spatial and configuration analyses. Her research is looking closely at the use of the evidence-based approach to design and to generate new evidence through empirical studies. She gained extensive teaching experience on a number of courses in both architecture and urban design. Her primary goal as an educator is to help students develop their own critical and creative design thinking, realizing their role as designers and the impact of their designs on users.


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