What can urban design learn from changing winds? A case study of public space in Nanjing (1990s-2010s)
Climate is one of the prominent and persistent factors affecting the human habitat. During the recent urbanization, human society has left remarkable environment footprints including the macro- and micro- climates related to human settlement. It’s essential for urban planning decision-maker to contextualize people’s wellbeing in the public space and micro-climate changes. The adverse changes of micro-climate are usually related more to local developments than to global changes, with the causality relatively feasible to detect.
Characteristic of openness, the open spaces play an important role as outdoor relaxation and wind corridor, which is precious yet vulnerable assets for the citizens’ wellbeing. Agglomerated and unintentional developments inevitably change the wind patterns which potentially affect public life. A longitudinal study of such circumstance will provide knowledge and lessons for sustainable and salutary urban design.
Based on CFD simulation, this paper compared the static winter and summer airflows patterns of the Drum Tower area in downtown Nanjing during the period of 1990s-2010s. The results indicated that the wind pattern complexity increased gradually, the outdoor comfortability degraded dramatically in some areas, the environment inequity might be deteriorated too. The researcher suggests putting micro-climate issues firmly on the agenda of public wellbeing policy, involving various stakeholders in the assessment and urban design code with technical and social supports.
The Authors retain copyright for articles published in The Journal of Public Space, with first publication rights granted to the journal.
Articles in this journal are published under the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial Licence (CC-BY-NC) - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.
You are free to:
• Share - copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format
• Adapt - remix, transform, and build upon the material
Under the following terms:
• Attribution - You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
• NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
Balázs, K. (1989). Comparison of low and medium rise housing development in wind tunnel. Energy and wind climate aspects. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 32(1-2), pp.111-120.
Blocken B, Stathopoulos T, Beeck J, et al. (2016). Pedestrian-level wind conditions around buildings: Review of wind-tunnel and CFD techniques and their accuracy for wind comfort assessment. Building and Environment, 100, pp. 50-81.
Bitan, A. (1988). The methodology of applied climatology in planning and building. Energy and Buildings, 11(1-3), pp. 1-10.
Cheng, V., and Ng, E. (2006). Thermal Comfort in Urban Open Spaces for Hong Kong. Architectural Science Review, 49(3), pp. 236–242.
Du, Y., and Mak, C. M. (2018). Improving pedestrian level low wind velocity environment in high-density cities: A general framework and case study. Sustainable Cities and Society, 42, pp. 314-324.
Eliasson, I. (2000). The use of climate knowledge in urban planning. Landscape and Urban Planning, 48(1-2), pp. 31-44.
Eliasson, I., Knez, I., Westerberg, U., Thorsson, S. and Lindberg, F. (2007). Climate and behaviour in a Nordic city. Landscape and Urban Planning, 82(1-2), pp. 72-84.
Evans, J. and Schiller, S. (1996). Application of microclimate studies in town planning: A new capital city, an existing urban district and urban river front development. Atmospheric Environment, 30(3), pp. 361-364.
Gao Y, Yao R, Li B, et al. (2012), Field studies on the effect of built forms on urban wind environments. Renewable Energy, 46, pp. 148-154.
Gehl, J. and Koch, J. (2011). Life between buildings. Washington, DC: Island Press.
Golany, G. (1996). Urban design morphology and thermal performance. Atmospheric Environment, 30(3), pp. 455-465.
Hou, A., Ni, G., Yang, H. and Lei, Z. (2013). Numerical Analysis on the Contribution of Urbanization to Wind Stilling: An Example over the Greater Beijing Metropolitan Area. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 52(5), pp. 1105-1115.
Hunter, L., Watson, I. and Johnson, G. (1990). Modelling air flow regimes in urban canyons. Energy and Buildings, 15(3-4), pp. 315-324.
Lin, T., Tsai, K., Hwang, R. and Matzarakis, A. (2012). Quantification of the effect of thermal indices and sky view factor on park attendance. Landscape and Urban Planning, 107(2), pp. 137-146.
Liu, Z., Hu, B., Wang, L., Wu, F., Gao, W. and Wang, Y. (2015). Seasonal and diurnal variation in particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5) at an urban site of Beijing: analyses from a 9-year study. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22(1), pp. 627-642.
Li, Y., and Stathopoulos, T. (1997). Numerical evaluation of wind-induced dispersion of pollutants around a building. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 67, pp. 757-766.
Li, Z., Yan, Z., Tu, K., Liu, W. and Wang, Y. (2011). Changes in wind speed and extremes in Beijing during 1960–2008 based on homogenized observations. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 28(2), pp. 408-420.
Lynch, K., Banerjee, T. and Southworth, M. (1990). City sense city design. Cambridge [MA]: The MIT Press.
Matzarakis, A. (2005). Country report urban climate research in Germany. IAUC Newsletter, 11, pp. 4-6.
Melbourne, W. (1978). Criteria for environmental wind conditions. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 3(2-3), pp. 241-249.
Mills, G. (2006). Progress toward sustainable settlements: a role for urban climatology. Theoretical and applied climatology, 84(1-3), pp. 69-76.
Moonen P, Dorer V, Carmeliet J. (2011). Evaluation of the ventilation potential of courtyards and urban street canyons using RANS and LES. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 99(4), pp. 414-423.
Murakami, S., Ooka, R., Mochida, A., Yoshida, S. and Sangjin Kim (1999). CFD analysis of wind climate from human scale to urban scale. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 81(1-3), pp. 57-81.
Ng, E. (2009). Policies and technical guidelines for urban planning of high-density cities – air ventilation assessment (AVA) of Hong Kong. Building and Environment, 44(7), pp.1478-1488.
Nikolopoulou, M. and Lykoudis, S. (2007). Use of outdoor spaces and microclimate in a Mediterranean urban area. Building and Environment, 42(10), pp. 3691-3707.
Oke, T. (1973). City size and the urban heat island. Atmospheric Environment 7(8), pp. 769-779.
Oke, T. (1984). Towards a prescription for the greater use of climatic principles in settlement planning. Energy and Buildings, 7(1), pp. 1-10.
Oke, T. (1988). Street design and urban canopy layer climate. Energy and Buildings, 11(1-3), pp. 103-113.
Peng, L., Liu, J., Wang, Y., Chan, P., Lee, T., Peng, F., Wong, M. and Li, Y. (2018). Wind weakening in a dense high-rise city due to over nearly five decades of urbanization. Building and Environment, 138, pp.207-220.
Research Group on the Relationship between Urban Planning and Construction, Meteorological Conditions and Air Pollution in Beijing. (2004). Urban Planning and Atmospheric Environment. Beijing: Meteorological Press.
Sini, J., Anquetin, S. and Mestayer, P. (1996). Pollutant dispersion and thermal effects in urban street canyons. Atmospheric Environment, 30(15), pp. 2659-2677.
Takano, T. (2002). Urban residential environments and senior citizens' longevity in megacity areas: the importance of walkable green spaces. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 56(12), pp. 913-918.
Thorsson, S., Lindqvist, M. and Lindqvist, S. (2004). Thermal bioclimatic conditions and patterns of behaviour in an urban park in Göteborg, Sweden. International Journal of Biometeorology, 48(3), pp. 149-156.
Wang, L., Li, C., Ying, Q., Cheng, X., Wang, X., Li, X., ... and Gong, P. (2012). China’s urban expansion from 1990 to 2010 determined with satellite remote sensing. Chinese Science Bulletin, 57(22), pp. 2802-2812.
Wang, Y. and Qin, Y. (2006). Evaluation criteria for green buildings. Shanghai Residence (9), pp.104-111.
Vitruvius M. P., De Architectura, in Rowland, I. D. (2003) Vitruvius. Ten books on architecture. The Corsini Incunabulum with the Annotations Drawings by Giovanni Battista Da Sangallo, Roma: Edizione dell’Elefante, Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei.
Yang, J., Zhang, T. and Fu, X. (2016). Coupling study on wind environment and spatial form in urban central area—Taking the central area of Xinjiekou in Nanjing as an example. Nanjing: Southeast University Press.
Xu, Z. and Han, L. (2018). The historical changes of winds above open space and the surroundings of Nanjing. Urban planning forum, 2018(02), pp. 81-88.
Zacharias, J., Stathopoulos, T. and Wu, H. (2001). Microclimate and Downtown Open Space Activity. Environment and Behavior, 33(2), pp. 296-315.