Mohammed Mashary Alnaim


Gathering spaces are a significant component of any type of built form. Many factors influence their shape, size, and location and how they are integrated with the surrounding. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the location of urban elements and threshold spaces. The paper suggests that this relationship influenced the creation if dual-functional gathering spaces and increased their significant while maintaining the private areas. Space Syntax analysis technique is used to examine and understand the number of factors related to space, territory, society, culture, and environment. The paper objective is to discuss a way to how we look at traditional architecture from the lens of cultural context. To revel its concepts and lessons embedded developed by its society in the built heritage and use the tools for problem-solving.


How to Cite
Alnaim, M. M. (2021) “Urban Elements in the Saudi Arabian Najd Region and their Influence on Creating Threshold Spaces”, The Journal of Public Space, 6(1), pp. 9–24. doi: 10.32891/jps.v6i1.1298.
Author Biography

Mohammed Mashary Alnaim, University of Hail, Department of Architectural Engineering

PhD in design and planning and hold the position of an assistant professor at the University of Hail. Worked on several projects related to Riyadh city in Arriyadh development authority. Currently, a teacher in the architectural engineering department of Hail and as an architect with several leading projects. Also, the head of the heritage studies and research in Afniah architecture and engineering company.


Akbar, J. (1981). Responsibility and The Traditional Muslim Built Environment. Unpublished PhD thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA.

Al-Hathloul, S., & Anis, R. (1985). The Evolution of Urban and Regional Planning in Saudi Arabia. Ekistics, Vol. 52, No. 312, pp. 206-212.

Al-Hathloul, S. (1996). The Arab-Muslim city: Tradition, Continuity and Change in The Physical Environment. Dar Al Sahan, Riyadh.

Ar-Rami, Ibn. (XV Century) (1995). Al-Ilan bi Ahkam al-Buniyan ed. Al-Atram S. Dar-Ishbiliya, Riyadh, KSA (Arabic).

Abu-Ghazzeh, T. (1994). Built Form and Religion: Underlying Structures of Jeddah Al-Qademah. International Association for the Study of Traditional Environments, Traditional Dwellings and Settlements Review, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 49- 59.

Al-Zubaidi, M. (2007). The Sustainability Potential of Traditional Architecture in the Arab World- With Reference to Domestic Buildings in the UAE. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Huddersfield, England.

Alzahrani, S., & Eisa, J. (2007). Traditional urban patterns in Assir region. Damascus University Journal, Vol. 1, pp. 189-228.

Alajmi, M. (2009). History of Architecture in Kuwait: The Evolution of Kuwaiti Traditional Architecture Prior to the Discovery of Oil. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Nebraska, USA.

Alearini, A. (2010). Alkhabra old and New. AlJazeera News Paper, Retrieved from http://www.al-jazirah.com/2010/20100627/wo3.htm, Accessed on July 18, 2019 (Arabic).

Al-Ramali, F. (2011). The Tourism of Alkhabra. Middle East News Paper, No. 11973, Retrieved from Archive.aawsat.com Accessed on July 18, 2019 (Arabic).

Arriyadh Development Authority (ADA). (2015) Riyadh: History, tradition and Vision. ADA, Riyadh, KSA (Arabic).

Alnaim, M. (2015). Al-Fereej: Rituals and Ceremonies of the Traditional House in Alhasa, Saudi Arabia. Al-Turath, Saudi Arabia (Arabic).

Eben Saleh, M. (1998). The Impact of Islamic and Customary Laws on Urban form Development in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. Habitat International, Elsevier Science Ltd., Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 537—556.

Hillier, B. & Hanson, J. (1984). The Social Logic of Space. Cambridge University Press, London.

Hillier, B. (2005). The Art of Place and the Science of Place. World Architecture, pp 96-102.

Hakim, B. (1986a). Arabic-Islamic Cities: Building and Planning Principles. Kegan Paul International, London.

Hakim, B. (1986b). The “Urf” and its Role in Diversifying the Architecture of Traditional Islamic Cities. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, pp. 108-126.

Hessam, K. G. (2016). Evaluation of the Relationship Between Culture and Traditional Architecture and its Effects on Design Quality Improvement. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp 2120-2123.

Jiang, B., & Claramunt, C. (2002). Integration of Space Syntax into GIS: New Perspectives for Urban Morphology. Transactions in GIS, pp. 295–309.

Jamalinezhada, M., Seyed, T., & Soltanic, S. (2012). Islamic Principles and Culture Applied to Improve Life Quality in Islamic Cities. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 35, pp. 330-334.

Rapoport, A. (1977). Human Aspect of Urban Form: Towards a Man Environment. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

Sait, S., & Lim, H. (2006). Land, Law, and Islam: Property and Human Rights in the Muslim World. Zed Books Ltd, London.

Ul-Haq, S. (1992). Meaning in Architecture: An Investigation of the Indigenous Environment in Bangladesh. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology