The Segregation in Access to Spaces for Urban Activities during COVID-19 Pandemic in Relation to Gated Communities in Egypt
Despite the long history of physical and social segregation by various types of gated communities in Egypt, they are attracting more residents. This is a result of the sense of privacy, security, access to proper services and the quality of green areas and public spaces that they offer. In most cases, such privileges and spaces for urban activities have restricted access to users who do not own residential units in such gated communities. With the current COVID-19 pandemic, starting in early 2020, and the Egyptian government’s preventive measures, people’s daily lives have been affected both economically and socially. Regulations such as the application of a curfew, and the closure of public services and facilities have had a considerable impact on population’s urban activities and the use of the public spaces. Yet, it could be argued that urban activities within gated communities have increased as the residents were forced to stay at home, or within the gated compounds’ walls. Thus, this paper investigates the use of the spaces for urban activities inside the gated communities; whether residential or beach destinations, in Egypt during the pandemic. It then studies the segregation in the rights of use of open urban spaces inside and outside gated communities, during the pandemic.
The Authors retain copyright for articles published in The Journal of Public Space, with first publication rights granted to the journal.
Articles in this journal are published under the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial Licence (CC-BY-NC) - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.
You are free to:
• Share - copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format
• Adapt - remix, transform, and build upon the material
Under the following terms:
• Attribution - You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
• NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
Bődy, P. (1998) "Lukovich Tamás: A posztmodern kor városépítészetének kihívásai", Tér és Társadalom, 12(4), pp. 161–164. doi: 10.17649/TET.12.4.494.
Cairo Scene (2020), A media agent and online newspaper (accessed 29 July 2020).
Denis, E. (2006). “Cairo as Neoliberal Capital”. In Amar, P. & Singerman, D. (eds.) Cairo Cosmopolitan: politics, culture and urban space in the new globalized Middle East (47-71). The American University in Cairo Press.
Egypt Independent (2020), “Damietta Governor closes beaches as part of anti-virus measures”, published on 28 March 2020. (Online) Available at https://egyptindependent.com/damietta-governor-closes-beaches-as-part-of-anti-virus-measures/ (accessed on 30 July 2020).
Egyptian Streets (2020): “Egypt Lifts Most COVID-19 Restrictions, Moves to ‘Coexist’ With the Virus”, published on Egyptian Streets news on 23 June 2020. (Online) Available at https://egyptianstreets.com/2020/06/23/egypt-lifts-most-COVID-19-restrictions-moves-to-coexist-with-the-virus/,(accessed 29 July 2020).
ElFasla (2020). “The Egyptian regulations during COVID-19 pandemic”, published on El Fasla online media agent, (accessed 29 July 2020).
Farhat, T. (2020), “Citizens not wearing face masks will face EGP4,000 penalty, imprisonment: Radwan”, published on Daily News Egypt on 21 May 2020 (accessed 29 July 2020).
Gomaa, A. (2020), “The Ministry of Health reveals the fate of the first case of COVID-19 in Egypt”. (Online) Available at :https://www.msn.com/ar-eg/news/national/, published on Masrawy newspaper on 15 February 2020 (accessed 29 July 2020).
Marafi, S. (2011). “The Neoliberal Dream of Segregation: Rethinking gated communities in Greater Cairo” (Master Thesis).
Masrawy (2019). “It has been stipulated for 40 years .. Learn about the crisis of using beaches”, published on Masrawy newspaper on 7 September 2019. (Online) Available at https://www.masrawy.com/news/news_egypt/details/2019/9/7/1630536/%D9 (accessed on 29 July 2020).
Murphy, J. (2010). “The Nationalist Neoliberalism of your Desires: The case of Egypt” (Bachelor Thesis).
Official Gazette (1991): Law no. 7 of year 1991 regarding private state property, the desert land outside the ‘Zemam’: city boundaries.
Official Gazette (1995). Prime Minister’s decree no. 2908 of year 1995.
Official Gazette (2020). Degree from the prime minister, based on the degree no. 768 and 740 of year 2020. Announced in April 2020.
Osama, S. (2020). ”Egypt closes some beaches as people flock to seaside amid coronavirus crisis”, published on Ahram Online on 28 March 2020. (Online) Available at http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/1/64/366154/Egypt/Politics-/Egypt-closes-some-beaches-as-people-flock-to-seasi.aspx (accessed 30 July 2020).
Prime Minister (2020): Degree no. 768 of year 2020, announced on 24 March 2020.
Shorouknews (2019). “The Federation of Chambers of Commerce submits a memo to the Cabinet against the fees of exploiting the beach”, (Online) Available at https://www.shorouknews.com/news/view.aspx?cdate=01092019&id=1c6f3a65-bcff-4e32-b525-ee8c6c2c5895&fbclid=IwAR2oJ30FSNtfwLX-Zp2Hgg6VJCIeZ_S6PzgQwknIYcySfj892wQ07TLnTB8, (accessed on 29 July 2020).
Shouse, N. and Silverman, R. (1999). “Public facilities in gated communities”, Urban Land, 58(6), 54.
The North Africa Journal (2020). “Egypt: Eid al-Fitr under lockdown”, published on 21 May 2020, available online at http://north-africa.com/2020/05/egypt-eid-al-fitr-under-lockdown/ (accessed on 19 July 2020)