Vanesha Manuturi
Nina Asterina
Febpry Ghara Utama


Many public spaces in Indonesian cities are inaccessible to vulnerable groups such as children, elderlies, and persons with disabilities (PwDs), partly due to a lack of infrastructure and limited understanding by citizens and government agencies. The design and planning of these spaces are typically conducted in a top-down approach, with little participation of citizens. Regulation by the Indonesian Transportation Ministry1 stipulates that school areas with heavy traffic and high risk of accidents should have a Safe School Zone (Zona Selamat Sekolah, in Indonesian). The regulation details a technical guideline for the Safe School Zone, i.e., traffic signs, crossroads, speed bumps, but its implementation does not yet consider inclusive principles and universal design. To build a more inclusive and accessible city for all in accordance with the UN-HABITAT New Urban Agenda, a participatory design process with multiple stakeholders—teachers, local government, and most importantly, students—plays a vital role in ensuring inclusive planning in cities. This abstract reflects on the experience of Kota Kita and the Banjarmasin City Transportation Agency implementing a participatory Safe and Inclusive School Zone pilot project in Banjarmasin, Indonesia, to promote inclusive city planning and build the community’s capacity to improve their living spaces.


Read the full article in accessible html-format here.


How to Cite
Manuturi, V., Asterina, N. and Utama, F. G. (2022) “What Do the Students Want? Reflections from a Participatory Approach to Creating Safe and Inclusive School Zones in Banjarmasin, Indonesia”, The Journal of Public Space, 7(2), pp. 223–234. doi: 10.32891/jps.v7i2.1494.
Non Academic / Case study
Author Biographies

Vanesha Manuturi, Kota Kita Foundation

Vanesha Manuturi is the Communications and Advocacy Manager at Kota Kita. With nearly 10 years of professional experience in media and communications, she is skilled in combining storytelling, journalism principles, and development practices to design and execute compelling media & communication strategies that raise public awareness and promote citizen participation on various urban issues. Vanesha holds a Bachelor’s degree in Communication Studies, Journalism, with a minor in Sociology from Seattle Pacific University. She has led the organizing of events such as the annual Urban Social Forum, and spearheaded various thematic campaign initiatives including TUMI Inclusive Banjarmasin. Vanesha has contributed to media outlets such as the Jakarta Globe, the Jakarta Post, GIZ's iBAN magazine, the Next Billion, and UNESCO Inclusive Policy Lab.

Nina Asterina, Kota Kita Foundation

Nina Asterina is a Program Manager with expertise in gender equity and social inclusion in Kota Kita. She is responsible for managing the activities under the urban inclusivity program, including participatory mapping, urban mobility, inclusive economy, and disability project. With Kota Kita, she has been working in more than 10 cities in Indonesia and has been working intensively in Solo and Banjarmasin. She holds a Master’s degree in International Development (Urban Development) from the University of Birmingham, having previously completed her study on Public Policy at the University of Indonesia.


Asterina, N., Thamrin, H.N. and Beagen, B. (2019) Banjarmasin City: A Disability-Inclusive City Profile. [online] Kota Kita. Available at: https://kotakita.org/resources?title=banjarmasin-city-a-disability-inclusive-city-profile.

Harvey, D. (2003) The right to the city. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 27(4), pp.939–941. doi:10.1111/j.0309-1317.2003.00492.x.

Hutabarat Lo, R.S. (2011) Walkability Planning in Jakarta. [online] Available at: https://www.proquest.com/openview/da80f2dc7d55c988c3a5b42d859b6a81/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=18750 [Accessed 28 Jan. 2022].

Imrie, R. (2000) Responding to the Design Needs of Disabled People. Journal of Urban Design, 5(2), pp.199–219. doi:10.1080/713683959.

Kara, H. (2015) Creative research methods in the social sciences: a practical guide. Bristol; Chicago: Policy Press.
Kota Kita Foundation (2021) TUMI | Safe and Inclusive Neighborhood for All! [online] www.inclusivebanjarmasin.id. Available at: http://inclusivebanjarmasin.id.

Lefebvre, H. (1973) Le Droit à la ville. 1. Paris: Anthropos.

Purcell, M. (2013) The right to the city: the struggle for democracy in the urban public realm. Policy & Politics, 41(3), pp.311–327. doi:10.1332/030557312x655639.

Surjadi, P. and Asterina, N. (2019) Participatory Data for Disability-inclusive City: Experiences from Facilitating Citizen’s Agency and Collaboration in Banjarmasin. In: The International Conference on Disability and Diversity in Asia (ICDDA). [online] Available at: https://kotakita.org/resources?title=experiences-from-facilitating-citizens-agency-and-collaboration-in-banjarmasin [Accessed 24 May 2022].

UN Habitat (2022) Safer Cities [online] Available at: https://unhabitat.org/programme/safer-cities [Accessed 24 May 2022].

United Nations General Assembly (2016) The New Urban Agenda, A/CONF.226/4 (29 September 2016) [online] HABITAT III. Available at: https://habitat3.org/the-new-urban-agenda/.

Widianingsih, I. and Morrell, E. (2007) Participatory Planning in Indonesia. Policy Studies, 28(1), pp. 1–15. doi:10.1080/01442870601121320.

National Law 4/1997 concerning Persons with Disabilities, Republic of Indonesia.

National Law 19/2011 concerning Ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD).

National Law 8/2016 concerning Persons with Disabilities.

Regulation of the Minister of Public Works 30/ PRT/M/2006 on Technical Guidance of Facilities and Accessibility for Buildings and Environment.

Regulation of the Minister of Public Works and Housing of the Republic of Indonesia No. 14/PRT/M/2017 on Access Requirements for Building Facilities.

Regulation of the General Directorate of Land Transportation on the Technical Guidance in Pedestrian Safety and Security in School Areas Through the Provision of Safe School Zones SK. 3582/AK. 403/DRJD/2018.